Case Studies Matrix: economic aspects


1) Managing flood risk through London and the Thames estuary

Summary Table

Parameter Description
Problem Faced How sea level rise would affect flooding in the Thames Estuary, and in central London, over the next 90+ years.
Flood Management Measures Proposed Enhanced maintenance and progressive replacement of the existing defences, plus (probably after c. 2070) a replacement for the current Thames Barrier
Method Applied MCA using a “scoring and weighting” methodology
Input Data The land use of the flood risk area; current and future hazard extent and probability; the current state of the defences.

What Were the Costs?

c. £4bn

What Were the Benefits?

 c. £380bn
Result The TE2100 plan was accepted by government and is now in the implementation stage
Comments Massive study costing £16m over 5 years. There was a fear that time was already short for major interventions, but this Plan showed that this was not correct.


2) Flood Risk Management Master Plan for Prut – Barlad River Basin (ro.pdf)

Short description (eng)

Summary Table

Parameter Description
Problem Faced Strategies to reduce flood risk through a combination of preventive measures, preparedness and active intervention to localities, from Hydrographic Basin Prut – Barlad, who were confronted with flooding.
Flood Management Measures Proposed i.e. Management Measures proposed for Zone 2 x Scenario 3.

Zone 2: Barlad river basin.

Scenario 3 acts on: maintaining existing protection works + rehabilitation works (rehabilitation of critical protection works to encrease their resistance to the risk of breaking under hydraulic loading, put by flood water. For this purpose, it improves the quality of the dam, from the current standard (class 3 or 4) to grade 1 or 2. These improvements reduce the risk of breaking and, consequently, reduce the residual risk of major localities in the basin areas mentioned above).

Method Applied MCA using a “scoring and weighting” methodology
Input Data Digital terrain models, orthophotos, maps flooding, safety standards for dams and bridges, land use characteristics, distribution history of flood risk.

What Were the Costs?

668 million EUR

What Were the Benefits?

1.668 million EUR
Result Running the program of initial works, based on “no regrets” , until the completion of the Master Plan and its approval by the Romanian authorities and the EU.
Comments Flood Risk Management Plan is developed with 3 areas of analysis x 3 time periods (period 1: 2013, period 2: 2014-2019, period 3: 2020-2025) x 7 scenarios. The plan is reviewed every 6 years.

3) Cost Benefit Analysis For Watman – Information System For Integrated Water Management (pdf)

 Summary Table  

Parameter Description
Problem Faced Reduce the incidence of natural disastera affecting the population, by implementing preventive measures in most nulnerable areas by 2015.
Flood Management Measures Proposed Detection of flash flood possibility of forming and probable floods.

• Flood propagation and evolution forecast along mainstreams;

• Warning authorities and population regarding the spread, severity and time of floods

• Organization and authorities and population response actions in emergency situations

• Resources assurance (material, human, financial) at county level for operative


• Activation of operative institutions, resources mobilization

Method Applied CBA: costs and benefits are evaluated on a differential basis, considering the difference between the scenario of the project and the alternative scenarios outside the project.
Input Data • Integration of all legacy sensor, satellite and external data systems

• Five new S-Band weather radars

• An eight-sensor national lightning detection network

• 60 new automated surface stations

• METEOSAT second-generation receiver and processor

• Wide Area and Local Area Network communications including VSAT technology

• Advanced radar analysis/Nowcasting systems

What Were the Costs?

59 billion EUR

What Were the Benefits?

429 billion EUR
Result • optimal management of structural engineering works, increased capacity of intervention in case of pollutions or floods;

• optimal allocation of water and water resources at basinal and national level, from qualitative and quantitative point of view, optimal management of water;

• management infrastructure in case of disasters and implicit a higher intervention capacity in case of disasters (floods and pollution),;

• decreasing damages and increasing life‟s saved in case of emergency.

Comments • project implemented between year 2013 and 2014.

• the time horizon for the project is 30 years

4) Bega-Timis Cannel infrastructure modernization feasibility study (pdf)

Summary Table  

Parameter Description
Problem Faced The Bega Canal, one of the few artificial waterways in Romania, is located in the west part of country in the County Timis. In the spring of 2000, Romanian, Serbian and Hungarian representatives agreed to support a revitalization of the Bega canal to improve the water management and navigation in the Euro region DKMT (Danube-Kris-Mures-Tisa).
Flood Management Measures Proposed Rehabilitation of the navigation lock; Repairs of the canal banks
Method Applied MCA using a “scoring and weighting” methodology
Input Data Digital terrain models, orthophotos, maps flooding, safety standards for dams, water consumption, sediments level, discharges and pollutants.

What Were the Costs?

25.4 million EUR

What Were the Benefits?

Result • environmental friendly river bank protection;

• an efficient allocation of water resources among the users;

Comments  Period of life time considered, according to accepted probability (T): 1000 years

5) River Basin Management Plan Abstract and Examples in Romania

River Basin Management Plan (RBMP) Abstract

Example of RBMP for Somes – Tisa river (ro)

Example of RBMP for Olt river (ro)

6) Portuguese Project CIRAC 

It’s a project developed for the Portuguese Association of Insurance Companies about Floods.

In the wepage you can download the publication (brochura) that is printed in Portuguese and english. You can also download the publication at

Also at the Cirac webpage in the link MAPS you can acess to a map server where the results of the project are represented 

The case studies used in this project are presented in

7) An economic case for the Humber and United Kingdom

Flood Defences Cost Money, No Flood Defences Cost More: An economic case for the Humber and United Kingdom; Prepared on behalf of the Humber Parliamentarians, Local Authorities and the Humber Local Enterprise Partnership.

The Humber is home to 921,000 people of whom nearly 400,000 are at risk of flooding, as are key industries, 32,500 businesses and a significant agricultural sector. 

The area hosts some of the highest value assets and critical infrastructure in the country, including power stations and refineries, the country’s largest port complex, a petrochemicals industry worth £6bn per year as well as an SME base upon which the prosperity of the economy depends.

The Humber recently experienced its worst tidal surge on record. The event resulted in approximately 1,100 properties being flooded along with at least 2,600ha of agricultural land in East Riding alone6 and 2,300 ha flooded on the south bank. Direct damages are estimated to exceed £90 million, yet despite this scale of impact the event can be considered a ‘near miss’ by virtue of the fact that 90,000 homes weren’t inundated… See the whole report of the case study here


8) Flood-CBA “Basic” Case Study

Steps in ‘Walkthrough’:

1. Review the flood problem and history of flooding

2. Collect data on properties at risk

3. Model the full range of potential flood events

4. Extract depth/damage data for all properties at risk

5. Convert Flood flows from modelling to annual average damages (AAD)

6. Calculate present value of damages (PVd)

7. Estimate present value of scheme costs (PVc)

8. Compare PVc with PVd to give Benefit/Cost ratio

See the whole report of the case study here

See the whole report of a more “complex case study here




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